The USB drive is a very popular device that is used in everyday work life, even for those working outside of a typical nine to five office administrative job. While many people know how to use a USB drive, not many people are aware of how the USB drive functions. To fully understand, it’s best to start from the beginning. The USB drive stands for universal serial bus, and has been an industry standard since it was first adopted in the mid 1990s.


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A propulsion system is an apparatus that converts mechanical power into a propulsive force, pushing or pulling an object to drive it forward. Within the realm of aerospace, the aircraft propulsion system often consists of an aircraft engine to produce thrust, allowing it to achieve sustained, heavier-than-air flight. Depending on the type of aircraft, various propulsion systems may be implemented to achieve flight, and each utilizes varying components and properties for their operation. In this blog, we will discuss two of the most common propulsion system types, as well as some of their various subtypes.


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Within the realm of aviation, aircraft tugs and safety equipment are extremely beneficial for flight operations, allowing for aircraft of all sizes to be safely moved around a runway. While many aircraft have the ability of moving themselves backwards through the use of reverse thrust, this poses a number of logistical problems and dangers. With the power produced from thrust, gateways could be damaged, surrounding personnel harmed, and engines may be damaged from debris that is sucked in. Because of this, tugs are widely used for aircraft ranging from light personal planes to jumbo airliners.


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A filter element is the central component of any filter, where the actual process of filtration takes place. Generally speaking, filter elements are divided into two classes: surface and depth. Surface filters are made from closely woven fabric or treated paper and feature uniform pore sizes. Fluid flows through the pores of the filter while debris and contaminants are stopped at the filter surface. Surface filters are designed to prevent the passage of a high percentage of solids of a given size.


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Ruthenium is a chemical element from the periodic cable, existing in the form of a rare transition metal that belongs to the platinum group. Ruthenium is considered chemically inert, meaning that it does not undergo any reactions when it comes into contact with most chemicals, whether in nature or during the manufacturing process. While tarnish may not result from ruthenium being in a room temperature environment, it may be explosive from oxidation, and may be attacked by hydroxides and halogenics. Ruthenium was discovered in Kazan, Russia in 1844, and it is most often found as a part of platinum ores. Ruthenium may present use across a variety of applications ranging from benefitting chemical process catalysts to combining with platinum and palladium to manufacture electrical contacts. They are also very useful for a number of aerospace and aircraft manufacturing, due in part to their high melting point and robustness among other properties.


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A CAGE code, or Commercial and Government Entity code, is a unique 5 character alphanumeric code that can be given to a business as a unique identifier. CAGE codes are important as they are the way that an entity is able to do business with the United States government and identify themselves. In this blog, we will discuss the various facets of CAGE codes and why they are important for an entity to have.


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Aircraft cabin air systems are key in the reduction of dust, fibers, bacteria, and other microorganisms that would otherwise be present in an aircraft fuselage. They also play an important role in the simple act of breathing itself. At 35,000 feet, a fairly average cruising altitude, air pressure is low enough that even breathing pure oxygen would not provide your body with a sufficient amount of air. For this reason, all airline cabins are pressurized and require an intricate air system to pump in breathable air for passengers and all others aboard.


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In our modern society, electricity has become nothing less than a necessity for both the functionality of our businesses and our homes. Nevertheless, electricity can still be somewhat unpredictable and needs to have protections put in place so that accidents, risks, and dangers can be avoided. Within a majority of homes and businesses, there are a variety of systems that have been put in place to further this containment and protection. The most common form, the circuit breaker, is a device that everyone should be familiar with for the safety of their building, home, or even apartment.


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Mil-spec, sometimes referred to as MIL-STD, refers to any component that the U.S. Department of Defense utilizes for their military equipment. These mil-spec parts are components that have been manufactured to meet comprehensive requirements that have been set out by the Department of Defense in an effort to create standardization and interchangeability of parts. Mil-spec components are often denoted by a prefix (i.e. AN, MS, NAS, or NASM) before a part number.


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All aircraft engines require regular maintenance to ensure safe and healthy performance, and proper maintenance requires having the proper tools. If you have a turboprop engine like a Pratt and Whitney PT6A, this list of essential tools will help you keep it running healthy for its full lifespan.


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Powered aircraft obviously require fuel to achieve flight, and these systems must be both safe and efficient in how they transfer fuel from the tanks to the engines. The design and complexity of these systems, however, largely depends on the aircraft itself, with the size and layout being the most critical factors. A high-wing aircraft will use a different fuel system from a low-wing aircraft, for instance, and engines with carburetors will have different requirements compared to those with fuel injection.


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Computer memory can be an overwhelming topic especially when faced with the seemingly never-ending list of acronyms such as RAM, ROM, DRAM, SRAM, DDR, SDRAM etc. The easiest way to decide which computer memory is right for you, is to think about your own basic requirements. For most, the basic considerations are the standard of memory, the capabilities of their computer’s motherboard, and the speed of memory they require.


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No matter their design or model, all aircraft require airplane fuel to achieve flight. This makes fuel an extreme necessity, but the price of fuel is not a fixed point. Prices increased twenty two percent over the course of 2018 and accounted for 20% of air companies overall operating cost. Airlines can do their best to avoid these hefty prices by becoming more fuel efficient. However, there needs to be a balance between fuel economy and consistent on-time operations.


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One way to maximize the lifespan of hydraulic components is the ensure the internal sliding parts are sufficiently lubricated to minimize friction and corrosion. Due to the cost of repair or maintenance, some parts are considered more vital to the overall functioning more so than others; pumps and valves are critical components. Hydraulic fluids serve multiple purposes. The major function is to provide energy transmission throughout the system which enables motion to be accomplished; however, hydraulic fluids are also responsible for lubrication, heat transfer, and contamination control. Which type of lubricant you decide to use is significant as well.


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Propellants are used in the production of pressurized gas or energy. The gas or energy is then used to propel a vehicle, projectile, or other objects. The most common propellant is fuel, whether it be gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, etc. When propellants are decomposed or burned, they release the propellant gas. Some propellants are liquids that can be vaporized. Propellant gas, or exhaust, propels object forward by using a chemical reaction or combustion which increases its pressure.


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The colors and symbols used on an aircraft are instantly recognizable. At this moment, even mentioning the name of American Airlines, Mango Airlines, or Southwest airlines brings an assortment of imagery and colors to my mind.  The design elements on an aircraft can take an airliner from common to iconic in an instant. As such, when making the decision whether to use paint, polish, or both, airliners must consider marketing, maintenance, and overall cost.


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Corrosion and oxidation of metals into rust can result in the complete destruction of aircraft parts. Rust and corrosion inside of an aircraft’s engine can means disaster for the longevity and life of an aircraft. A key perpetrator for the corrosion of engines is the accumulation of water. Water is an essential reactant in the chemical reaction for the oxidation of metals into rust. It was falsely believed that water enters the engine, and thus furthering the corrosion of an engine, as a result of using the engine preheaters. Corrosion and rusting are created through a series of chemical reactions that aircraft engines are especially prone to.


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There are many ways to have accident in aviation; even the smallest mistakes can lead to disastrous results. So, it’s important to eliminate as many uncertainties and avoidable accidents and mistakes as possible.  For example, fuel management, insufficient training and knowledge about the aircraft fuel system, lackadaisical fuel consumption awareness, and poor preflight planning are all avoidable mistakes with serious consequences. 


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